Obscure freedoms of the air: looking beyond fifth freedom

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A few days ago I clarified my mistaken characterization of what constitutes a fifth freedom flight (SEE: 5 fifth freedom routes I’m highly interested in flying), describing what a fifth freedom flight actually is (SEE: What is a fifth freedom flight?). In the process I also clarified the difference between the fifth freedom and the seventh freedom. But what are the other freedoms of the air?

There are actually a total of nine freedoms of the air. You can check them out in the manual. The first four constitute typical airline operations and really aren’t worth discussing. The one most commonly talked about is the fifth freedom, because it is more unique. But there are also sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth freedoms!

Whether these are actually “freedoms” in…

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